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What Are the Long-Term Effects of Alcohol On the Brain?

Mina Draskovic, B.Psy., reviewed this content for accuracy on 10/12/2023

For many, grabbing a beer or glass of wine after work is a favorite way to unwind and relax. But what happens when one drink turns into several on a regular basis?  

More importantly, what kind of long-term effects can alcohol have on your brain?

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While an occasional drink may not cause concern, heavy drinking can take a major toll on our overall health, including our liver, kidneys, behavior, and brain. Research shows that excessive alcohol consumption actually damages areas of the brain vital for functions like learning, memory, motor skills, and emotional regulation. 

If you are struggling with alcohol abuse, our alcohol addiction treatment program in Utah can help you find your way back to vitality.

How does alcohol affect your brain?

Alcohol adversely affects the brain. It impacts both structure and function: it induces structural changes in the brain while also interfering with its intricate chemical signaling. 

Some of these effects are acute—they go away when your body gets rid of its toxins—while others can be long-lasting. The end result may be physical and functional brain damage that can undermine a person’s cognitive abilities, emotional state, and self-control.

Let’s dig deeper into the ways alcohol affects your brain. 

Short-term effects:

  • Impaired judgment and coordination
  • Slurred speech
  • Blackouts and memory and learning problems
  • Increased aggression
  • Reduced inhibitions
  • Mood changes

Mid-term effects:

  • Worsening depression and anxiety
  • Sleep disruptions and fatigue
  • Reduced motivation and apathy
  • Impaired concentration and focus
  • Brain fog and confusion

Long-term effects:

  • Permanent damage to brain tissue
  • Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (memory loss)
  • Increased risk of stroke, dementia, and neuropathy
  • Shrinkage of brain regions like the hippocampus
  • Deficits in learning, verbal skills, and impulse control
  • Lasting changes in brain chemistry and neural pathways

What Parts of the Brain Does Alcohol Affect?

While alcohol impacts nearly every brain cell, there are parts of our brain that seem particularly vulnerable to alcohol’s damaging effects. These include:

  1. Frontal lobe: responsible for judgment, planning, and impulse control
  2. Cerebellum: involved in coordination and movement
  3. Hippocampus: involved in memory formation
  4. Hypothalamus: responsible for emotional regulation
Brain regions vulnerable to alcohol.
Brain regions vulnerable to alcohol. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668884/

How does alcohol affect the frontal lobe?

The frontal lobe plays a key role in executive functioning. It controls your judgment, planning, problem-solving, and impulse control. When this part of your brain is heavily influenced or damaged, you often experience increased impulsivity and find it hard to regulate your behavior. 

The effects of alcohol on frontal lobe activity, even in the short term, can cloud your judgment and reduce inhibitions. You become more impulsive, engage in atypical behaviors (e.g., inappropriate speech, aggression, risky sexual encounters, or dangerous risk-taking), and are less able to consider the consequences of your actions. 

Sound familiar? Here comes the scary part. 

A 2022 study found that “alcohol intake is negatively associated with global brain volume measures, regional gray matter volumes, and white matter microstructure.” In other words, your brain can actually shrink in volume due to heavy drinking. 

Your brain does physically shrink as you get older, but heavy alcohol consumption can make this shrinkage worse. According to research, “light to moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the rate of frontal lobe shrinkage, whereas heavy drinkers had significantly shrunken frontal lobes compared with abstainers.” 

Brain shrinkage can damage neurons and affect important neurotransmitters. This is medically known as cerebral atrophy. It can make chronic alcoholics lose up to a sixth of their total brain mass. Cerebral atrophy impacts both gray and white matter in areas involved in cognition, motor skills, and emotion regulation. 

How does alcohol impair motor coordination in the cerebellum?

Did you ever wonder why you get so clumsy after a few too many drinks? That’s your cerebellum calling it quits. This brain region tucked right under your brain’s rear lobe is key for fluid movements and good coordination. 

Booze causes cerebellar dysfunction and ataxia (problems with coordination), seen in alcoholics and even in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but it seems that alcohol disrupts communication between brain cells and damages structures within the cerebellum. Neurons can’t seamlessly do their job, causing signals to misfire between your brain and your muscles. 

Excessive alcohol exposure results in cerebellar ataxia and alterations in hand movements, speed when striking a target, impaired postural stability and balance, and slower attenuated foot taping. In addition, the developing cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. (Luo)

Here’s how alcohol prevents your cerebellum from doing its job:

  • You move awkwardly, you sway and stagger. Your movements may become jerky and uncoordinated. 
  • Your speech becomes wonky. Alcohol paralyzes the tongue and mouth muscles.
  • Your reaction time slows down. When the cerebellum is impaired, processing and responding to information takes longer.
  • You have trouble performing delicate tasks. Fine motor skills and precision deteriorate with the cerebellum suppressed.
  • You experience “visual slippage.” Things you see may seem displaced or jump around, damaging your balance and coordination.
  • Your eye-hand and eye-foot coordination declines. It becomes challenging to sync your vision with your limbs. 

This is exactly why you shouldn’t drink and drive. 

What are alcohol’s effects on the hippocampus?

The hippocampus is essential for learning new information and forming memories. This seahorse-shaped region consolidates short-term memories into long-term storage so they can be retrieved later. Damage to the hippocampus causes severe short- and long-term memory impairments. 

When alcohol inhibits hippocampus activity, even in the short term, it hinders the brain’s ability to solidify new information and experiences into memory. This causes the classic experience of an alcohol-induced blackout, where you cannot recall events that occurred while you were chugging heavily. 

People with alcohol-damaged hippocampus may frequently repeat themselves, forget appointments or obligations, and struggle with learning. That’s because heavy drinking decreases the size of the hippocampus. 

Individuals with heavier drinking patterns had a larger rate hippo-parahippocampal volume decline. This higher rate of GMV decline in the hippocampus was associated with poorer memory, and with greater number of memory blackouts. (Meda, et. al.)

Heavy drinkers often struggle with learning new information, but prospective memory also suffers. That’s your ability to remember future plans and obligations. While failing to remember you have lunch with your in-laws this coming Thursday isn’t so bad, the negative effects of alcohol on your hippocampus over time can lead to much more serious consequences.

How does alcohol hijack your hypothalamus?

The hypothalamus is a small brain structure that acts as the control center for many important bodily processes and behaviors. Among other things, it regulates body temperature, hunger, sex drive, and emotional responses through the autonomic nervous system

Heavy drinking suppresses hypothalamic activity and disrupts normal signaling between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (which produces chemical messengers called neurotransmitters). 

Here’s what happens when your hypothalamus is intoxicated:

  • Your hunger signals are thrown into disarray, either spurring your appetite or suppressing it.
  • Your inner thermometer is jumbled, making you feel alternating chills or flushes.
  • Normal sleep patterns are disrupted as alcohol initially excites and then sedates the system. 
  • Sex drive can fluctuate. 
  • Emotional regulation suffers. Inhibitions may lower while anxiety and aggression may alternately rise. 
  • Neurons wither and the hypothalamus shrinks. 

Alcohol use disorder often decreases the levels of thiamine (vitamin B21). Thiamine is an essential nutrient for brain health that helps produce energy from sugars and supports proper neuron function. Alcohol decreases thiamine absorption, leading to a severe deficiency over time. This condition is known as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

A major consequence of severe thiamine deficiency is damage to regions of the brain like the hypothalamus. 

…thiamine deficiency may result in damage to portions of the hypothalamus (perhaps because blood vessels break in that region). According to this hypothesis, alcoholics who are susceptible to alcohol toxicity may develop permanent or transient cognitive deficits associated with brain shrinkage. (Oscar-Berman & Marinkovic)

Oscar-Berman and Marinkovic also suggest that people “susceptible to thiamine deficiency will develop a mild or transient amnesic disorder, with short-term memory loss as the salient feature.”

If you recognize any of these symptoms of alcohol misuse in yourself, now might be a good time for a change. In our alcohol rehab center, you’ll find skilled professionals ready to help you every step of the way toward building a healthier, happier life in recovery.

How does alcohol interfere with neurotransmitters?

Alcohol directly affects the function of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that allow neurons to send signals (messages) to each other. They play distinct roles in cognition, movement, mood, reward, and other brain functions. 

According to research, alcohol hijacks the brain’s reward and stress pathways by altering neurotransmitter activity, which drives addictive behaviors that can eventually lead to alcoholism.

Alcohol interacts with several neurotransmitter systems in the brain’s reward and stress circuits. These interactions result in alcohol’s acute reinforcing effects. Following chronic exposure, these interactions in turn cause changes in neuronal function that underlie the development of alcoholism.

Excessive drinking alters levels of GABA, glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, which leads to communication disruptions between neurons. Here are their key functions:

  1. Dopamine is critical for motivation, reward, pleasure, and motor control. Alcohol artificially spikes dopamine levels, but this doesn’t last very long.
  2. Serotonin influences mood, emotion, appetite, and sleep/wake cycles. Alcohol boosts serotonin initially but can deplete it long-term.
  3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the brain’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. Alcohol enhances GABA activity, causing sedation, disinhibition, and anxiety when sober.
  4. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and plasticity. It has the opposite effect of GABA. Alcohol suppresses glutamate and impairs cognitive functions.
  5. Acetylcholine is important for memory, learning, and attention. Low acetylcholine is linked to confusion and amnesia, more so when you drink regularly because alcohol reduces its levels.
Dopamine and Serotonin pathways

The way alcohol interferes with neurotransmitter activity can disrupt vital processes like learning, memory, motor control, pleasure, and mood regulation. Imbalances in these chemical messengers underlie many of alcohol’s effects on thinking, emotions, and behavior. 


Over time, increased tolerance, addiction, and alcohol withdrawal symptoms all boil down to the way alcohol messes with your brain’s chemistry.

The link between neurotransmitters and tolerance, addiction, and alcohol withdrawal 

We’ve established how booze hijacks the brain’s reward and stress circuits by directly mucking with neurotransmitters. It throws off the delicate balance between chemicals that end up exciting the brain more than they calm it down. When your brain experiences pleasure and happiness while intoxicated, why should it give that up? 

That’s how your tolerance to larger amounts of alcohol increases until addiction develops.

…physical dependence, which refers to the pharmacological tolerance induced by chronic alcohol intake, results in AWS and is neurobiologically supported by the imbalance between GABA and glutamate-NMDA neurotransmission. (Banerjee)

Let’s break this down a bit.

  1. Alcohol boosts the feel-good dopamine and initially suppresses stress signals.
  2. You feel euphoric and relaxed with the first few drinks.
  3. Your intoxication builds and starts to over-excite the brain’s stress system.
  4. When you don’t drink, you get anxious and irritable, so you drink.
  5. The brain tries to compensate for all this chemical chaos by decreasing dopamine activity and increasing stress chemicals. (The levels of your stress hormone cortisol are all over the place.)
  6. You build up tolerance: you need more alcohol to feel the initial euphoria. 
  7. Stress chemicals flood an unbalanced brain, spurring withdrawal symptoms like tremors, sweating, insomnia, and, in severe cases, seizures. (The more symptoms you experience, the more likely you are to develop withdrawal syndrome from alcohol abuse.)

Banerjee also explains how these neurotransmitters “have been implicated in alcohol addiction due to their imbalance in the brain, which could be either due to their excess activity or inhibition.”

…what begins as a mild way to seek pleasure, soon turns into a full-fledged addiction as the alcohol begins to cause widespread neuroadaptations in the brain, causing the person to convert from an alcohol non-addict to an alcohol addict. Such changes in the reinforcing value of alcohol during the transition from alcohol use to dependence reflect adaptive neural changes resulting from chronic exposure to high alcohol quantities. 

Our inpatient program helps you overcome your alcohol addiction and withdrawal symptoms. Here at Ardu, you will learn healthy coping strategies to deal with alcohol cravings. After completing the inpatient portion, you can continue on the road to recovery with our intensive outpatient program.

Reach out and change your life for the better.

I hold the experience I had at Ardu very close to my heart and stringing some words together won’t ever be able to adequately describe what it did for my life. Which is save it. Ultimately, I know it was me who made the decision to change, but without the guiding hand, compassion, challenges, and honest work from the therapist and staff, I wouldn’t be where I am today.

Lani Lye


Does alcohol cause cognitive decline?

Chronic alcohol misuse has negative effects on your memory. As the hippocampus and frontal lobes get bogged down by alcohol, concentration and memory start to stutter. Your thinking becomes muddled, slow, and disjointed. 

These combined effects on memory circuits lead to the so-called “brain fog” often reported by heavy drinkers. Brain fog is a fancy name for mental confusion, decreased clarity of thought, and an inability to focus properly. People with alcohol-related brain fog describe feeling mentally sluggish, slow, and fuzzy. 

What’s behind the brain drain? 

For one, alcohol directly suppresses glutamate. Oscar-Berman and Marinkovic show that even a small amount of alcohol interferes with this key excitatory chemical, making it harder for the brain to form memories. Hence those pesky blackouts drinkers experience. 

Small amounts of alcohol have been shown to interfere with glutamate action. This interference could affect several brain functions, including memory, and it may account for the short-lived condition referred to as “alcoholic blackout.” 

During alcohol withdrawal, these excessive glutamate receptors become overactive, potentially causing cell death and brain damage manifesting as seizures or strokes.

To make things worse, alcohol also drains acetylcholine levels, another neurotransmitter vital for memory consolidation and learning. Running low on acetylcholine, you struggle to focus, recall facts, or memorize new stuff.

What Does Alcohol Do to Your Brain Over Time?

While alcohol may provide temporary relief or euphoria, the truth is that it inflicts lasting damage to your brain when consumed heavily over the years. It’s not just bad hangovers and foggy mornings at stake—we’re talking long-term cognitive decline, increased dementia risk, permanent motor problems, strained relationships, and the threat of addiction.

Chronic alcohol use may:

  • Lead to addiction and dependence. By altering dopamine reward pathways, alcohol can lead to cravings and compulsive drinking behavior over time, where individuals feel a strong urge to consume alcohol despite negative consequences.
  • Cause cumulative neuron death. Years of heavy alcohol use can kill your brain cells and even shrink the brain. These adverse effects cause progressive cognitive impairments,  such as memory problems, impaired judgment, and difficulties with coordination and decision-making.
  • Lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Severe thiamine deficiency from alcoholism damages regions like the hypothalamus. This can result in symptoms such as confusion, memory deficits, ataxia (problems with muscle coordination), and amnesia. 
  • Increase the risk of dementia. Heavy drinking for years raises the likelihood of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s later in life. Chronic alcohol consumption can lead to brain damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of developing dementia.
  • Make it difficult to learn new things. Brain plasticity naturally declines over time, making it harder to acquire new skills or form new memories. Heavy alcohol exposure only accelerates the decline.
  • Interfere with your tolerance and sensitization in the long run. When your brain adapts to alcohol, it requires more and more of it to feel intoxicated. It also becomes sensitized to withdrawal, making each repeat worse.

If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol dependence, our team of experts is here to provide support, guidance, and compassionate care as you take the important steps toward recovery. Don’t wait until the damage becomes irreversible. 

Can Alcohol Permanently Damage Your Brain?

Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption can lead to permanent damage to the brain. Based on everything we know about the effects of alcohol on the brain, here’s what you need to know about how dangerous excessive alcohol consumption is:

  • Alcohol can permanently damage the brain through neurotoxicity. It acts as a neurotoxin, damaging and killing brain cells. Over time, this can lead to a decrease in overall brain volume and disrupt the normal functioning of brain regions. These neurotoxic effects can contribute to dementia and exacerbate conditions like Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Excessive drinking can shrink brain tissue by impairing neuron development and damaging white matter connectivity. This can impair cognitive skills even with abstinence.
  • Chronic heavy alcohol use can damage the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, regions involved in executive functions.
  • Alcohol abuse is linked to Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, which causes permanent brain damage and memory loss due to vitamin B1 deficiency.
  • Even moderate drinking may increase brain shrinkage and reduce volume in areas like the hippocampus.

Do you want to stop drinking? Our residential treatment health care team can help you get sober and maintain your sobriety.

How Do You Know if You Have Brain Damage From Alcohol?

Brain damage from alcohol is a complex issue, and it’s not always easy to pinpoint. That’s because alcohol affects individuals differently depending on factors like genetics, the amount consumed, and the duration of use. 

There is no single definitive indicator that alcohol has damaged the brain. Alcohol-related neurological damage manifests in subtle, nonspecific ways that emerge gradually over time. Rather than distinct symptoms, what typically appear first are vague symptoms like mild cognitive difficulties and emotional changes. 

That being said, there are some general indicators that binge drinking may impact your brain:

  1. You have problems with memory. You might find yourself forgetting important details, appointments, or conversations. Occasional forgetfulness is normal, but persistent and severe memory issues could be a cause for concern.
  2. You have a hard time concentrating. If you’ve noticed that it’s become increasingly challenging to concentrate on tasks, follow conversations, or stay focused on your work, alcohol might be playing a role.
  3. You experience mood swings. Heavy alcohol use can lead to mood swings, anxiety, or even depression. Sudden changes in your emotional state or increased irritability might suggest that your brain chemistry is being affected.
  4. You have issues with coordination. Alcohol can impair your coordination and balance, making you more prone to accidents and falls. 
  5. Your speech becomes slurred. While this might be more noticeable during periods of intoxication, some people find themselves slurring words or experiencing confusion even when they’re not drinking. These could be signs of neurological damage.

Remember, it’s never too late to make positive changes in your life. Seeking help is a crucial first step toward addressing any potential brain damage from alcohol. 

Contact Ardu Recovery Center and learn how to take care of your brain’s health.

Can You Reverse Brain Damage From Alcohol?

Structural changes in the brain, such as a decrease in brain volume, are hard to fully reverse. However, our brain has the ability to recover and regenerate, and, in some cases, brain damage caused by binge drinking may be reversed. 

The extent of recovery depends on factors like:

  • Age
  • Genes
  • Nutrition
  • How severe and long-lasting the alcohol abuse has been
  • How much permanent cell death occurred

There is some potential to reverse brain damage, but full recovery from alcohol is very difficult to achieve. Here’s how you can help your brain regain some of its health and function:

  • With abstinence, some neurological recovery is possible. Our brain is plastic, so neurons can generate and reconnect to a degree.
  • Cognitive and motor skill training can help rewire and revive damaged neural pathways through neuroplasticity.
  • Aerobic exercise helps to enhance blood flow and stimulate the birth of new neurons that can integrate into brain circuits.
  • A healthy diet provides nutrients that aid regeneration and neurotransmitter function. Key vitamins like B1 and folic acid are especially important.
  • Maintaining emotional health and social connections also supports brain recovery.
  • Some medications can aid recovery, like cholinesterase inhibitors for memory.

It is extremely challenging to repair the damage inflicted by years of heavy alcohol abuse, but there are dedicated recovery programs that can help regain some cognitive abilities. Our alcohol detox center offers individualized care to free yourself from the grip of alcohol addiction and help your brain on the path to healing and renewed vitality.

Learn more about the six stages of alcohol recovery that can help you overcome alcohol addiction and live a happier, healthier life.

Do You Need Help Quitting Alcohol?

Alcohol-related brain damage is difficult to recover from, but not impossible. At our addiction recovery center, we specialize in helping people like you break free from the grip of alcohol addiction. Our team of skilled and experienced addiction specialists is here to provide the support, guidance, and personalized treatment you need to embark on your journey to recovery.

The recovery process begins with alcohol detox, where we safely and comfortably help you rid your body of alcohol toxins. Our medical professionals at our detox center closely monitor your progress to ensure a smooth and safe detox experience. Detox is an essential first step, allowing your body to cleanse and heal from the harmful effects of alcohol consumption.

We believe in a comprehensive approach to recovery, so we tend to address not only the physical aspects but also the psychological and emotional aspects of addiction. We offer group therapy and individual therapy to all our patients, as well as holistic treatment methods that delve into the underlying factors contributing to your alcohol addiction.

Remember, you don’t have to face this alone. We are here to support you every step of the way. If you’re ready to take the first step toward a healthier, alcohol-free life, reach out to us today

Alcohol and Brain FAQ

How does alcohol affect the brain under 21?

Alcohol can have particularly detrimental effects on the developing brains of individuals under the age of 21. The brain continues to undergo significant changes and growth during adolescence and early adulthood. Alcohol interferes with this process, potentially causing lasting damage.

Alcohol impairs the development of the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for decision-making, impulse control, and judgment. This can lead to risky behaviors, poor decision-making, and impulsivity, which are more pronounced in young people.

Also, the hippocampus, vital for memory formation, can be negatively affected by alcohol. Memory and learning deficits may result from heavy drinking during adolescence.

Research suggests that young people who start drinking before age 15 are more likely to develop alcohol dependence later in life, indicating that early exposure to alcohol can increase the risk of long-term addiction.

Does the brain fully recover from alcohol?

The brain has some capacity for recovery from the effects of alcohol, but full recovery may be difficult, especially in cases of chronic and heavy alcohol abuse. Some brain functions can improve with abstinence. For example, cognitive abilities such as attention, memory, and problem-solving may partially recover. The brain’s plasticity allows it to adapt and repair itself to some extent.

However, in cases of severe alcohol use disorder or long-term heavy drinking, certain brain damage may be irreversible. Conditions like Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, which results from thiamine deficiency due to alcoholism, can lead to permanent brain damage.

What is considered heavy drinking?

Heavy drinking is typically defined as excessive alcohol consumption that exceeds recommended guidelines and poses significant health risks. 

For men, consuming more than 4 alcoholic drinks in a day or more than 14 drinks per week is considered excessive. For women, excessive drinking involves consuming more than 3 drinks in a day or more than 7 drinks per week.

Why do I lose my memory when I drink?

Memory impairment while drinking is a common phenomenon. Alcohol affects the brain in several ways that contribute to memory loss:

  • Alcohol interferes with the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for the formation of new memories. This disruption can make it challenging to recall events that occurred while under the influence.
  • Alcohol can reduce attention span and concentration, making it difficult to encode information effectively. You may not pay as much attention to details, leading to memory gaps.
  • In some cases, excessive alcohol consumption can lead to blackouts, where individuals are unable to recall events or periods of time. This occurs due to alcohol’s impact on memory consolidation.
  • Alcohol affects neurotransmitters like glutamate and GABA, which play roles in memory and cognitive function. These disruptions can further impair memory.

The severity of memory impairment can vary based on factors such as the amount of alcohol consumed, individual tolerance, and genetic predisposition. Excessive drinking can lead to more pronounced memory problems and pose long-term risks to cognitive function.

What part of the brain can be permanently damaged by alcohol?

Chronic alcohol abuse can lead to permanent damage in various parts of the brain, including:

  • Frontal cortex: the frontal cortex is responsible for decision-making, impulse control, and judgment. Long-term alcohol use can result in structural changes and impairments in this area, contributing to impulsive behaviors and poor decision-making.
  • Hippocampus: alcohol can interfere with the hippocampus, which is crucial for memory formation. Damage to this region can lead to memory problems and difficulties in learning and retaining new information.
  • Cerebellum: the cerebellum controls motor skills and coordination. Chronic alcohol abuse can cause cerebellar atrophy, leading to problems with balance, coordination, and fine motor skills.
  • Thalamus: the thalamus relays sensory information to other parts of the brain. Alcohol-related damage to the thalamus can result in sensory and motor problems.
  • Hypothalamus: the hypothalamus regulates various bodily functions, including temperature, hunger, and thirst. Damage to this area can disrupt these functions and contribute to hormonal imbalances.
  • White matter: alcohol can affect the brain’s white matter, which connects different regions and facilitates communication between them. Damage to white matter can impair information processing and cognitive function.

The extent of brain damage varies depending on the duration and severity of alcohol abuse. While some recovery is possible with abstinence and treatment, certain impairments may be irreversible. 


Daviet, R., Aydogan, G., Jagannathan, K., Spilka, N., Koellinger, P. D., Kranzler, H. R., Nave, G., & Wetherill, R. R. (2022). Associations between alcohol consumption and gray and white matter volumes in the UK Biobank. Nature Communications, 13(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28735-5

Kubota M, Nakazaki S, Hirai S, et al. Alcohol consumption and frontal lobe shrinkage: study of 1432 non-alcoholic subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2001;71:104-106

Luo, J. (2015). Effects of ethanol on the cerebellum: Advances and prospects. Cerebellum (London, England), 14(4), 383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12311-015-0674-8

Meda, S. A., Hawkins, K. A., Dager, A. D., Tennen, H., Khadka, S., Austad, C. S., Wood, R. M., Raskin, S., Fallahi, C. R., & Pearlson, G. D. (2018). Longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on the hippocampus and parahippocampus in college students. Biological Psychiatry. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3(7), 610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.02.006

Oscar-Berman, M., & Marinkovic, K. (2003). Alcoholism and the Brain: An Overview. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(2), 125-133. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668884/

Banerjee, N. (2014). Neurotransmitters in alcoholism: A review of neurobiological and genetic studies. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, 20(1), 20-31. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.132750

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