Most Insurances Accepted!
Call Ardu Recovery Center Today

What is beer belly and how does alcohol contribute

Mina Draskovic, B.Psy., reviewed this content for accuracy on October 20, 2023.

That frothy cold one may be refreshing, but you may want to think about your waistline. Too many drinks may leave you with the dreaded “beer belly.”

According to a study published in 2017, more than 90% of adult males in developed countries (including the U.S.) were sporting a beer belly. That’s a lot of paunches.

Table of Contents

Excessive beer consumption is one of the leading causes of enlarged bellies in men. The excess calories, carbs, and bloating effects of beer make the perfect gut-growing combo. Beyond the visible, alcohol has a cascade of negative health effects that you may want to avoid. Once you learn this stuff, you can’t unlearn it.

If you’d like to take better care of your body (and your overall health) it may be time to rethink your drinking habits. 

Take the first step towards treatment and break the addiction cycle with our alcohol detox program. Our caring team at Ardu Recovery Center can help you safely detox and start building a life free of addiction.

ARDU Recovery is the BEST treatment center! I was there for 46 days in residential treatment and went through their detox as well. They saved my life…I learned so much about how to better my life in all ways. It is a good mix of traditional therapy and treatment combined with holistic healing as well. From admission to my clinical therapy and even the out patient program, my treatment was done with true care and concern for my well-being and I was treated like a person who matters. I recommend you go to ARDU if you or someone you know is struggling with addiction.

Jennifer Taylor


What is a beer belly?

A beer belly, also known as abdominal obesity, is the accumulation of excess fat in the abdominal region. It is often caused by excessive alcohol—particularly beer—consumption. The term “beer belly” describes the protruding, rounded gut common among heavy beer drinkers. 

When you drink a lot of beer, you can gain weight easily because alcohol is packed in calories. Those extra calories get stored as fat if you’re not balancing them out with proper nutrition and exercise. Excessive beer intake is also linked to poor dietary choices, further expanding your waistline. 

The result? The dreaded beer belly.

What causes beer belly?

Many people still believe that beer belly is a myth. Sadly, that bloated, enlarged belly protruding over your pants is no myth. Beer belly is a real phenomenon directly influenced by your brew-drinking habits and a combination of other factors. 

Genetics, personal lifestyle, and aging play supporting roles, but your alcohol consumption takes center stage when it comes to increased waist circumference. 

Here’s what may destroy your waistline:

  1. Excessive alcohol consumption. Beer is full of empty calories and carbs. They quickly get stored as visceral fat (the fat that wraps your organs) and—boom. Before you know it, you’re unable to button your favorite shirt. Plus, beer’s carbonation doesn’t really help (the bubbles make you bloat).
  2. Poor diet and a lack of exercise. An unhealthy, unbalanced diet with lots of empty calories and very little nutrition makes it easy to gain weight. Combine it with a sedentary lifestyle and less physical activity, and weight gain is inevitable, especially around the midsection. 
  3. Hormonal changes. Sure, blame it on the hormones. Alcohol does affect them, messing with their levels and influencing a cascade of downstream effects that promote abdominal fat storage.
    1. Beer contains phytoestrogens (plant-derived compounds) that raise bodily estrogen levels. This leads to fat deposition around your belly and chest. 
    2. Alcohol wreaks havoc on testosterone levels. Evidence suggests that it decreases T levels in men. For men, as testosterone drops, muscle mass decreases and the body stores fat more easily. This makes it harder for men to handle excess calories, creating a vicious cycle.
    3. Alcohol also triggers stress hormones such as cortisol. Prolonged elevated cortisol encourages fat storage, especially around the stomach. 
  4. Genetics. Genetics can accelerate or slow the formation of beer belly, but they are not the cause—the above factors are. 

If you are uncomfortable with the amount of beer or other types of alcohol you consume, it’s time to get help. Contact Ardu Recovery Center and talk through your options with our caring specialists. 

Our rehab center provides comprehensive alcohol addiction treatment to guide you through recovery.

Why does alcohol make you fat?

Alcohol contains empty calories and a lot of them. And it doesn’t contribute any protein (needed for muscle synthesis), nutrition, or other things your body needs. 

According to the UK National Health Services, one gram of alcohol contains approximately 7 calories. Most alcoholic drinks clock in around 100 calories per serving, but they all provide nutrition-void calories.

Let’s count some more (empty) liquid calories.


Calories (kcal)

Standard 175ml glass of 12% wine

Up to 158 kcal

Pint of 5% strength beer

Up to 222 kcal

50ml glass of 17% cream liquor

153 kcal

Standard 275ml bottle of 4.5% alcopop

154 kcal

75ml of 17.5% fortified wine

102 kcal

50 ml of 40% spirits


Based on these numbers, the NHS warns that if you drink four bottles of 12% strength wine in one month, you’re consuming up to 32,400 additional calories per year. Five pints of 5.2% strength lager each week add up to 57,720 extra calories in a year.

But alcohol works against you in other ways, beyond the additional calories: 

  • Chronic alcohol use reduces testosterone production in men.
  • Testosterone plays a key role in building and maintaining muscle mass. Lower T means less muscle and slower metabolism. A slower metabolism means you’re not burning as much fat.
  • Testosterone helps mobilize and burn fat stores, especially visceral belly fat. Less T makes it harder to lose belly fat.
  • Drinking raises estrogen in men, driving abdominal fat accumulation.
  • Alcohol impairs fat metabolism, promoting fat storage around organs.
  • Drinking can cause insulin resistance, encouraging belly fat gain.
  • Alcohol triggers inflammation, enlarging abdominal fat cells.
  • Excessive drinking disrupts healthy gut microbes, possibly impacting weight management.

See, it’s bad all around. Alcohol attacks you from multiple angles: it increases calories at the same time it decreases your ability to effectively handle calories.

Why is it called “beer belly”?

Beer is the biggest alcoholic offender in the realm of obesity, hence “beer belly.” Beer undergoes minimal processing compared to other alcoholic beverages. It retains more carbohydrates from the grains used in brewing, with a 12-ounce beer supplying 10-15 grams of carbs. 

Those grains and hops in your brew conceal sneaky saboteurs. Here’s what makes beer so calorie-dense:

  • Beer contains a high glycemic load that promptly gets stored in the abdomen. The high ratio of carbs to fiber in beer causes blood sugar and insulin spikes. A Dutch study found that pilsner beer (pale lager) has a high glycemic index (GI) compared to other types of beer in the Netherlands. The GI of 89 causes faster spikes in blood sugar and insulin, which likely contributes to increased belly fat storage.
  • Remember phytoestrogens that mimic estrogen? Hops provide those pesky estrogens that cause flabby fat storage. According to research, “higher estrogen levels lead to increased deposition of subcutaneous fat around the chest and abdomen.”
  • Carbonation in beer causes bloating. The bubbles in all carbonated beverages, including beer, expand your waistline through abdominal distention. Researchers suggest that significant symptoms related to gastric distress, such as bloating and stomach enlargement, generally occur when you consume more than 300ml (about 10 ounces) of a carbonated beverage—including beer. 
  • Beer lowers your inhibitions around food, leading to poor diet choices: you tend to make less healthy food choices when you drink. Researchers think it’s not just the liquid carbs and alcohol causing this effect, but the complex interplay of biological and psychological factors triggered when you consume alcohol.

Don’t think you can dodge the beer belly bullet by switching your poison. Wine and other spirits also pack on the abdominal padding. While beer is carbohydrate-rich, wine sugarcoats the liver as fructose levels rise—just as cocktails do. They rely on hard liquors and fruity, sugary flavors that strip away liver fat guards. 

No alcoholic drink sends the right signals for a lean, toned tummy. So if you’re watching your figure, limit your intake or quit booze entirely. 

We can help you make that first—and most difficult—step in quitting alcohol for good. At Ardu, our treatment involves safely managing withdrawal symptoms through medical detox or holistic detox. Our 24/7 medication-assisted treatment helps you relieve symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome that occur when you quit drinking. 

You can also choose our holistic treatment, where our caring staff can help you detox with the help of medications, exercise therapy, nutrition therapy, and even yoga.

What are the health risks associated with beer belly?

The bloated beer belly bulging over your belt is more than just an eyesore; it’s also a health hazard. Beer bellies boost the risk of developing serious medical conditions.

Excessive alcohol intake alone takes a heavy toll, with well-established links to liver disease, neurological damage, and cancer. 

Do you know how bad alcohol is for your brain and cognition? What about the effects of heavy drinking on your skin? You must know that alcohol dehydrates the skin (and other organs, as well), leaving it dry, dull, and prone to premature aging.

When you combine abdominal obesity with heavy drinking, health suffers on multiple fronts. Let’s see the wide-ranging health risks of beer bellies.

Beer bellies strain your cardiovascular system

The fat deposits stored in and around the abdomen can severely impact cardiovascular function. Here’s why alcohol is terrible for your heart:

  • Increased visceral fat narrows the arteries, restricting blood flow. Fatty deposits build up along artery walls, forcing the heart to pump harder to circulate blood through constricted passages.
  • The adipose (fat) tissue is metabolically active, releasing hormones and inflammatory cytokines. Over time, chronic inflammation damages arterial linings increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.
  • Carrying excessive weight loads the heart, as pumping blood to adipose tissue substantially raises circulation demands. Weakened cardiac muscle can result in heart failure, arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, and insufficient blood flow.

One study looked at how the way people drink alcohol (their “drinking pattern”) can affect the distribution of body fat, particularly in the abdomen, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The findings showed that those who drank less than one drink per drinking day daily had smaller abdominal measurements than those who drank less frequently but had more drinks per drinking day.

The study suggests that how often and how much you drink can impact where fat is stored in the body, especially in the abdomen. This, in turn, can affect the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Belly fat disrupts blood sugar regulation

Belly fat isn’t just about aesthetics; it’s a real red flag for diabetes and insulin resistance. Insulin is the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, and when your body becomes resistant to its effects, it can’t efficiently process glucose. The more you drink and the more belly fat you pack on, the higher your risk of diabetes.

…a severe and sustained hypoglycemia is elicited when alcohol is acutely administered to humans or animals fasted [for] 3–4 days. Thus, hypoglycemia would only be anticipated in humans with alcohol use disorder (AUD) who also have a relatively poor nutritional status or severely impaired liver function. (Steiner, et. al.)

Heavy drinking can be a real troublemaker for insulin. Excessive alcohol can mess with your blood sugar levels, leading to unexpected spikes and crashes, which isn’t fun if you’re managing diabetes. Plus, alcohol can impair your judgment and decision-making, which can lead to poor food choices and even more complications for those living with diabetes.

So, if you’re managing diabetes, it’s a good idea to keep a close eye on your alcohol intake and make those healthier choices to keep that belly fat at bay. 

Heavy drinking accumulates liver fat

Heavy alcohol consumption disrupts liver function and metabolism in many ways. When your liver is drowning in alcohol, it starts drowning in fat as well, leading to the first stage of alcoholic liver disease called fatty liver. 

All those excess calories have nowhere to go, so they morph into blobby triglyceride droplets in your liver. Before you know it, the liver balloons up to double or triple its normal size. An enlarged and fat-laden liver can’t properly perform its crucial metabolic duties—poor liver function means trouble for the whole body. 

A 2023 study looked closely at alcoholic liver damage and discovered how excessive drinking contributes to fatty liver.

  • Alcohol can cause a build-up of fat in the liver by inhibiting a molecule called AMPK, which normally helps break down fatty acids in the liver. This leads to decreased fat breakdown. 
  • Alcohol also damages the liver’s mitochondria, which further reduces fat breakdown. 
  • Alcohol promotes the production of fatty acids and reduces the liver’s ability to remove them, causing a fatty liver. Gut problems caused by alcohol can worsen this situation by allowing harmful substances to enter the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
  • Alcohol disrupts transport and secretion of lipids from the liver.
  • Alcohol impedes liver regeneration, preventing recovery.
Alcohol's toxic effects on the liver.
Alcohol's toxic effects on the liver. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668875/

In addition to these harmful effects, alcohol also disrupts the liver’s ability to regulate fat transport and secretion. This impairs the formation of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, which are crucial for removing fat from the liver. A study found that binge drinking had the worst impact on the liver’s lipoproteins, decreasing HDL cholesterol by 18% and apolipoprotein A-I by 13%. 

With impaired lipoproteins, the liver cannot properly remove fat, raising fatty liver and atherosclerosis risk. The engorged liver spills excess fat into the bloodstream, depositing it in the abdomen as central obesity or “beer belly.” That’s how alcohol critically damages the liver’s fat-regulating systems, increasing the risk of growing an unattractive beer belly.

Because of its extraordinary ability to regenerate, the liver can improve its function once you quit drinking. The sooner you give it a chance, the sooner your liver can begin repairing itself. 

If you or someone you care about needs help managing alcohol intake, Ardu can help you overcome alcohol addiction or abuse issues through evidence-based treatment plans tailored to your needs. 

Alcohol-related obesity increases the risk of cancer

Turns out too much booze and belly fat team up to boost your odds of developing cancer. For starters, alcohol itself is carcinogenic. Excessive amounts of beer or other types of alcohol can increase the risk of liver, breast, colon, esophagus, mouth, and throat cancers. 

Scientists think this is because alcohol damages DNA and interferes with folate metabolism which is needed to repair DNA. Folate is a B vitamin that plays an essential role in DNA synthesis and stability. Folate deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of breast and colorectal cancers. 

…chronic alcohol exposure impairs folate absorption by inhibiting expression of the reduced folate carrier and decreasing the hepatic uptake and renal conservation of circulating folate. (Halsted, et. al.)

Then there’s alcohol-related obesity. People who drank more than the recommended amounts and were in the higher-weight categories had a greater risk of developing cancer. 

…the joint association analyses showed that across all adiposity markers, above guideline drinkers who were in the top two adiposity groups had elevated cancer incidence risk…Regardless of alcohol consumption status, the risk of obesity-related cancer increased with higher adiposity in a dose–response manner within alcohol consumption categories. (Inan-Eroglu, et. al.)

Similarly, higher levels of obesity were linked to more cancer risk, regardless of the levels of alcohol consumption. 

Alcohol and obesity exacerbate gout

That swollen, fiery throbbing in your big toe might seem random, but it could be a sign your alcohol consumption is triggering gout. This excruciating form of arthritis stems from excess uric acid buildup in the joints, and beer bellies are the perfect triggers. 

A 2023 animal study found that high alcohol intake worsens gout, increasing joint pain and swelling and raising levels of inflammatory substances. It also changes the makeup of the gut bacteria, with some microbes exacerbating gout symptoms. 

…high-alcohol consumption not only exacerbated joint swelling and pain, increased the levels of UA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but also showed dramatic effects on the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in gouty mice. Two key microorganisms, Parasutterella and Alistipes, could aggravate gout symptoms…

Excessive amounts of beer spike uric acid levels, while the excess belly fat makes it harder for your kidneys to flush out the overload. Crystals form, igniting a firestorm of pain and inflammation. Uric acid is excreted by your kidneys, but since alcohol also impairs kidney function, excess uric acid builds up and has nowhere to go—the perfect recipe for gout. 

The takeaway is clear: a beer belly bumps up the likelihood of developing numerous health problems. That’s why it’s critical we keep our drinking in check and lifestyles healthy. Listen to what your body is telling you and take action at the first sign of bloat. 

Do you want to stop drinking and restore your well-being? Our residential treatment healthcare team can help you get sober and maintain your sobriety. 

Reach Ardu Recovery Center

Is beer belly the same as ascites?

Ascites may bloat your belly, but it’s a very different condition. Unlike the fat gut caused by too many brews, ascites result from a buildup of fluid in the abdomen. This swelling occurs when the liver gets damaged from heavy alcohol consumption and cannot properly regulate blood flow. The pressure forces fluid to leak out of vessels and accumulate around organs.

So, while beer bellies come from excess calories turning into visceral fat, ascites bloat develops from infiltrating fluids, indicating serious liver dysfunction.

If you struggle with fluid retention, read all about how quitting alcohol gets rid of ascites.

Are men more likely to get belly fat?

Research says that men might be more susceptible to developing beer bellies than women. 

A 2009 study revealed a positive link between how much beer men in the study drank and their waist size. Those who drank more beer tended to have larger waists. However, this relationship was not seen in women—there was no clear connection between beer consumption in ladies and their waist size.

More research supports the susceptibility of men to develop beer bellies and larger waist circumference [WC]. 

A positive association in men and no association in women were seen between beer consumption and WC at baseline. Men consuming 1000 ml/d beer were at 17% higher risk for WC gain compared with very light consumers. Significantly lower odds for WC gain were found in beer-abstaining women than in very-light-drinking women. 

Sorry, guys, but even more research highlights that men tend to accumulate more abdominal visceral fat than premenopausal women. This is associated with an increased risk of mortality, which is another way of saying alcohol is terrible for men

The primary reason for this gender difference seems to be the higher dietary fat uptake by abdominal visceral fat in men. Men have larger and more abundant chylomicrons (lipoproteins that transport dietary fat) than women, which leads to congestion in the lymphatics during the post-meal state. This congestion makes the chylomicron triglycerides more prone to hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL), allowing the released fatty acids to be stored by abdominal visceral adipocytes. Ultimately, abdominal fat accumulates, giving men that “apple-shaped” body.

Hold up, ladies: just because men are more prone to popping a beer belly doesn’t mean you get a free pass on drinking without consequences. Alcohol still wreaks havoc on your hormones too, raising testosterone and lowering estrogen. Excessive drinking also raises the risk of breast and esophageal cancer, liver disease, heart problems, and brain deficits. 

Read more about the health risks alcohol puts women in

We have good news for the gentlemen—and the ladies, too. At Ardu, we offer both women’s detox and men’s detox from alcohol, so you can reclaim your health and break free from dependence. 

If you were wondering about how much time you may spend recovering from the negative effects of drinking, check out this helpful guide on how long it takes to detox from alcohol

How can I prevent beer belly?

If your beer belly is bugging you, think about cutting way back. Even better: quit alcohol entirely. 

For a lean, strong body, your new motto should be “none.” Once you kick off the booze, here are some proven ways to deflate and tighten that paunch:

  • Follow a low-calorie, high-protein, high-fiber diet focusing on lean proteins, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Reduce intake of salty foods, carbohydrates, and sugary foods and drinks that bloat.
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water to help flush out toxins.
  • Engage in regular cardiovascular exercise (e.g., brisk walking, cycling, or swimming) to torch calories.
  • Add strength training to build metabolism-boosting muscle mass.
  • Get adequate sleep, as insufficient sleep disrupts hormone regulation.
  • Consider weight loss supplements such as green tea extract, probiotics, and vitamin D.

With a sensible lifestyle approach, you can beat the beer belly bloat. Stay motivated by keeping your health goals in sight.

Do you need help quitting alcohol? We can help you identify the stages of alcoholism, so you can accurately assess your own level of addiction. 

Beer belly FAQ

What alcohol is best for your belly?

Alcohol is not so good for your stomach: not for the digestive tract nor for your waistline. All alcoholic drinks contain calories, so if you drink any of them excessively, it can contribute to weight gain and belly fat.

Some alcoholic beverages, however, such as light beers or spirits mixed with low-calorie mixers, do have fewer calories than regular beers, sugary cocktails, or heavy liquors. 

If you’re watching your waistline, opt for lower-calorie alternatives—or cut out alcohol completely. Focus on your overall diet and exercise to maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of developing a beer belly.

Will fasting help me lose my beer belly?

Intermittent fasting is a popular approach for weight loss, but t there’s no specific method to “target” fat loss in the belly area. While fasting can help you lose overall body fat, where your body decides to shed those extra pounds first is mostly genetic. 

Fasting might help you lose weight, and over time, you may see a reduction in your abdomen, but beer belly won’t magically disappear from fasting alone. To achieve the best results, combine fasting with a balanced diet and regular exercise. 

How do I lose my beer belly?

It requires a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle adjustments to lose a beer belly. 

  1. To start, reduce your alcohol intake, particularly beer, which is often calorie-dense. 
  2. Focus on a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. 
  3. Watch your portion sizes, as overeating can contribute to abdominal fat.
  4. Incorporate regular cardiovascular exercise such as running, swimming, or cycling to burn calories and reduce overall body fat. 
  5. Strength training exercises can help build lean muscle, boosting your metabolism. 
  6. Adequate sleep, stress management, and staying hydrated are also crucial.
  7. Be patient. 

Will 2 beers a night make me fat?

2 beers a night might make you fat, and they might not. Everyone’s different. For some folks, two drinks can fit fine within a healthy, active lifestyle. But for others, those brews may just end up adding love handles. 

Your overall diet, exercise habits, genetics, and more play a role. Moderate drinking alone doesn’t automatically equal weight gain. But pound too many brewskis too often, and you’re asking for a beer belly. Those liquid calories add up over time.

Regular drinking can also affect how you sleep and your overall health, potentially paving the way for unhealthy eating habits and weight gain. 

So, while two beers a night might not make you instantly fat, it’s best to enjoy alcohol in moderation and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

What alcohol burns fat?

Alcohol doesn’t burn fat. In fact, it provides empty calories without any nutritional value. However, some alcoholic beverages have fewer calories than others, making them better choices if you’re concerned about your waistline. 

Spirits such as vodka, gin, or tequila typically have lower calorie counts compared to sugary cocktails, beer, or heavy liquors. When you consume fewer calories from alcohol, your body may have a better chance of burning stored fat for energy.

Is beer good for health?

Excessive beer consumption can lead to many health issues, such as weight gain, liver problems, and an increased risk of certain cancers. People with specific medical conditions or those taking medications that interact with alcohol should avoid alcohol entirely.

So, while some studies suggest that moderate beer consumption may offer health benefits, enjoy it responsibly and within recommended limits.

Is a beer belly the same as being fat?

A beer belly is a form of excess body fat but is not the same as being generally overweight or obese. It refers specifically to the accumulation of fat around the abdominal area. This kind of fat, known as visceral fat, surrounds internal organs and poses unique health risks.

While being overweight or obese means having excess body fat overall, it doesn’t necessarily indicate a particular distribution of fat. A person can be overweight without having a pronounced beer belly, and vice versa. However, those with a beer belly have a higher concentration of fat around their midsection, which is linked to a greater risk of health issues such as diabetes, heart disease, and fatty liver disease.

Can skinny people have a beer belly?

Yes, even people who appear skinny or have a low overall body weight can have a beer belly. A beer belly is primarily defined by the accumulation of fat around the abdominal area, regardless of a person’s weight in other parts of the body. This kind of fat is called visceral fat and can be harmful.

Skinny individuals with a beer belly might have what’s sometimes referred to as “skinny fat.” They appear thin but have an unhealthy distribution of fat that can still lead to health issues (e.g., insulin resistance, heart problems, and fatty liver disease). Genetics, diet, and lifestyle factors can all play a role in the development of a beer belly, even in those with a slim frame.

Beer belly isn’t solely about appearance but also about the potential health risks associated with excess abdominal fat.

Why am I losing weight but my stomach is still big?

Weight loss can be uneven, and it’s not uncommon for some individuals to lose weight while still retaining a significant amount of fat in the abdominal area. There are several reasons:

  1. Genetics: some people naturally store more fat in their abdominal region, making it the last place to lose fat during weight loss.
  2. Spot reduction myth: fat loss doesn’t occur evenly across the body. You can’t target specific areas for fat loss through exercise. Instead, your body decides where it loses fat first, which is often genetically determined.
  3. Stubborn fat: belly fat, especially visceral fat, can be more resistant to weight loss due to its metabolic activity.
  4. Underlying conditions: certain medical conditions, such as hormonal imbalances or insulin resistance, can make it more challenging to lose abdominal fat.

To reduce belly fat, continue with a balanced diet and exercise routine, focusing on overall fat loss. As you lose more weight, you’ll eventually see a reduction in your abdominal fat. Patience, consistency, and a healthy lifestyle are key to achieving your goals.


Maffetone, P., Rivera-Dominguez, I., & Laursen, P. B. (2017, July 24). Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat. Frontiers in Public Health; Frontiers Media. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00190

Website, N. (2023, July 10). Calories in alcohol. nhs.uk. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/alcohol-advice/calories-in-alcohol/

Trius‐Soler, M., Vilas-Franquesa, A., Tresserra‐Rimbau, A., Sasot, G., Storniolo, C. E., Estruch, R., & Lamuela‐Raventós, R. M. (2020, August 27). Effects of the Non-Alcoholic Fraction of Beer on Abdominal Fat, Osteoporosis, and Body Hydration in Women. Molecules; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173910

Tronina, T., Popłoński, J., & Bartmańska, A. (2020, September 14). Flavonoids as Phytoestrogenic Components of Hops and Beer. Molecules; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184201

Cuomo, R., Sarnelli, G., Savarese, M. F., & Buyckx, M. (2009, December 1). Carbonated beverages and gastrointestinal system: Between myth and reality. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases; Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2009.03.020

Fong, M., Scott, S., Albani, V., Adamson, A. J., & Kaner, E. (2021, August 24). ‘Joining the Dots’: Individual, Sociocultural and Environmental Links between Alcohol Consumption, Dietary Intake and Body Weight—A Narrative Review. Nutrients; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092927

Dorn, J. M., Hovey, K. M., Muti, P., Freudenheim, J. L., Russell, M., Nochajski, T. H., & Trevisan, M. (2003, August 1). Alcohol Drinking Patterns Differentially Affect Central Adiposity as Measured by Abdominal Height in Women and Men. Journal of Nutrition; Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.8.2655

Steiner, J. L., Crowell, K. T., & Lang, C. H. (2015, September 29). Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action. Biomolecules; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5042223

Seitz, H. K., Moreira, B. P., & Neuman, M. G. (2023, July 30). Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Fatty Liver a Narrative Review. Life; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/life13081662

Cho, K., Nam, H. S., Kang, D. J., Park, M. H., & Kim, J. H. (2022, August 3). Long-Term Alcohol Consumption Caused a Significant Decrease in Serum High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein A-I with the Atherogenic Changes of HDL in Middle-Aged Korean Women. International Journal of Molecular Sciences; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158623

Halsted, C. H., Villanueva, J. A., Devlin, A. M., & Chandler, C. J. (2002, August 1). Metabolic Interactions of Alcohol and Folate. Journal of Nutrition; Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.8.2367s

İnan-Eroğlu, E., Huang, B. H., Sarich, P., Nassar, N., & Stamatakis, E. (2022, October 21). Joint association of alcohol consumption and adiposity with alcohol- and obesity-related cancer in a population sample of 399,575 UK adults. British Journal of Nutrition; Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114522003464

Feng, Y., Sun, H., Zhu, R., Tao, J., Su, R., Sun, Y., & Wang, D. (2023, September 13). Effects of alcohol on the symptoms of gouty arthritis and taxonomic structure of gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice. Frontiers in Microbiology; Frontiers Media. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2023.1257701

Schütze, M., Schulz, M., Steffen, A., Bergmann, M. M., Kroke, A., Lissner, L., & Boeing, H. (2009, June 24). Beer consumption and the ‘beer belly’: scientific basis or common belief? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.39

Schütze, M., Schulz, M., Steffen, A., Bergmann, M. M., Kroke, A., Lissner, L., & Boeing, H. (2009, June 24). Beer consumption and the ‘beer belly’: scientific basis or common belief? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.39

Nauli, A. M., & Matin, S. (2019, December 5). Why Do Men Accumulate Abdominal Visceral Fat? Frontiers in Physiology; Frontiers Media. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01486

Further reading

Is alcohol a drug?

What are the most common physical symptoms of alcoholism?

Is the alcoholic personality a myth?

Why does alcohol trigger skin redness?

How to avoid booze during the holidays

Can my body recover from alcohol?

Am I addicted to alcohol or am I just drinking too much?

Why is alcohol toxic for the brain?

10 signs it may be time to hit rehab